Author: Travis

Hi. My name is Travis.

What does DNS downtime mean?What does DNS downtime mean?

What does DNS downtime mean? 

DNS downtime, also known as DNS outage, is the time during which the DNS is unavailable. You already know how important the resolution procedure is for gaining access to your domain name. The procedure of translating it to its IP address will be impossible if DNS fails. As a result, your website will be unable to be found, and its content will be unavailable.

Why is it dangerous?

If the DNS goes down, no one will be able to see your site, and any services linked with the domain name, such as email, would be unavailable. You’ll need to restart it to reclaim all of the functionality that was temporarily lost.

In the meantime, you can:

  • Lose out on potential guests.
  • To risk missing out on possible sales
  • To have problems with your email, FTP, VoIP, or other services

How to prevent DNS downtime?

Yes, avoiding DNS downtime is possible. How? The methods listed below can be used:

  • Implement Anycast DNS. Using Anycast, the query can be answered by a number of different servers located throughout the globe. The user will receive the IP address from the closest of them. In addition, if one of the DNS servers is unavailable for some reason, the request will be forwarded to the next nearest server.
  • DNS Monitoring service. Every out-of-the-ordinary traffic pattern could be an indication of something significant. Invest in a good monitoring system. Some can show data in near-real time by region, country, continent, and so on, allowing you to study the problem, its cause, and respond.
  • Use secondary DNS servers if necessary. Increasing the redundancy of your DNS network by adding secondary DNS servers is a good idea. More copies of your DNS records will be saved as a result of this change, and you will be able to better control your traffic. If your primary DNS server goes down, your clients’ requests will be handled by the secondary DNS servers.
  • Increase the TTL (time-to-live) of your DNS records. The job of recursive servers is to look for updates on authoritative name servers. Recursive servers will look for updates less frequently if you configure a high TTL value. However, with a low TTL value, they will check for updates more regularly. A short TTL is very useful when changing or editing DNS records because it speeds up the propagation process. Keep a higher TTL if you don’t need constant changes to avoid downtime.

Conclusion

To summarize, DNS downtime is extremely dangerous and can severely harm your business. If you don’t want this to happen, use various protection tools such as Monitoring, Secondary DNS, Anycast DNS, and so on. Good luck!

What is the purpose of DNS cache?What is the purpose of DNS cache?

In this post, you will discover the primary purpose of the DNS cache and how you can delete it. Let’s begin.

DNS cache – definition

The DNS cache is a type of temporary cache memory used by devices and DNS resolvers to store all previously used DNS records for the searched domain names. For example, the IP addresses of domain names and subdomains, data for their services, information about their email server, verification and authentication information, and so on are all contained in these records. Based on each DNS record’s TTL (Time to Live) value, the data will be saved in this DNS cache.

How does it work?

It works in a simple way. A DNS lookup is triggered whenever a user requests a domain name. Then the user’s device will initially look in the DNS cache built into its operating system (OS). It’s a database where distinct DNS records and their TTL values are stored. As previously stated, that TTL is established by the domain’s DNS administrator. The needed DNS entries can be found immediately there if the TTL hasn’t expired. The request will be fulfilled, and the domain will load extremely quickly. However, if the TTL has already passed, a new lookup will require additional time for the entire process to repeat.

This indicates that a DNS recursive server will accept the user’s request and request DNS records from other servers. First, it will query the root server, which will lead to the particular TLD server that should be searched, and then the recursive will be sent to the authoritative name server, which will finally supply DNS data (records).

The information will be transmitted to the user’s browser so that the domain can be loaded. Those data will be cached in the recursive server’s DNS cache, and the user’s device (computer, tablet, or mobile) will have access to them for as long as their TTLs allow.

Could you delete a DNS cache?

Yes, you can do it yourself. The clearing method varies depending on your operating system and browser, which may have its own DNS cache.

  • On Windows

So, first, find the Command Prompt and open it. Then type the following command: 

ipconfig /flushdns

Then you have to see a confirmation message. This is because the DNS has now been cleared.

  • On Linux

Launch the Terminal. Then run the following command:

sudo systemd-resolve –flush-caches

After that, type your sudo password and hit Enter. The DNS cache is deleted!

  • On macOS

First, open the Terminal. Then type the following command:

sudo killall -HUP mDNSResponder

After that, type your password and press Enter. Ready!

Okay, we see how to clear the DNS cache on different operating systems. Now, let’s see how to do it in different browsers:

  • Google Chrome/ Edge/ Opera

Chrome:/net-internals/#dns – copy this line. Then paste the line into your browser’s address bar. Enter your password. So now, on the page, look for “Host resolver cache” and then click “Clear host cache.” Ready!

  • Safari

In Safari, you can delete your cache by a different method type. First select “Advanced” from the “Preferences” menu. Next, look for “Show develop menu” in the toolbar there. Then find “Develop,” followed by “Empty Caches.” Ready!

Conclusion

In conclusion, we can agree that the DNS cache is a helpful tool for speeding up and streamlining the DNS resolution process. However, if necessary, you can delete it by following the steps above, depending on your operating system.

DNS record types – Definitions & PurposesDNS record types – Definitions & Purposes

The whole complicated Domain Name System has different DNS record types. Without them, this system will not be able to function. Why they are so important and what are their primary purposes we are going to see today in this article. 

DNS record – definition

Before exploring different DNS record types, we will see what the term DNS record means. They are text instructions situated in the zone file. Their primary purpose is to allow domain names to be resolved to IP addresses. They are so light and easy for modifications if they are necessary. We use different record types because computers are not like us humans and can’t understand the texts. So that’s why we translate this information in their language via DNS records. In other words, they translate the written information into numbers that machines can understand.

What are the most popular DNS record types?

Referring to the above, there are lots of DNS record types. Each one performs a specific job that is crucial for the proper operation of your Domain Name System. We’ll look at five of the most important ones, which are: 

A record

The A record is perhaps the most common and popular DNS record type. Its major goal is to link a domain name to the IP address that corresponds to it (IPv4 address). A user requests the A record whenever they wish to access and explore a specific website (domain name). It must be pointed to the correct IP address.

The A record is an essential aspect of the DNS setup. The domain name would be unable to be resolved if it was not found in the DNS zone.

SOA record

The next vital DNS record is SOA, representing the start of authority. It’s where the zone’s administrative data is kept. It is the initial DNS record in a DNS zone file, and it also establishes the zone’s general attributes. It also contains information on zone transfers, such as the refresh rate, retry rate, and administrator’s email address.

The SOA record acts as a control record with a serial number that indicates whether a new update is available. When the Secondary DNS servers notice a change in the number, they will update and obtain the most recent information.

PTR record

Another essential DNS record is the PTR record. If you want to send emails to anyone without difficulty, you’ll need it. The PTR record, also known as a pointer record, serves the opposite purpose as the A record. It connects a domain name to an IP address. When you send an email, your recipient will want to double-check that it was sent from your domain name. As a result, here the PTR record comes. If you make a mistake configuring the A record and the PTR record, your emails will most likely end up in your recipients’ spam folders.

MX record

The MX record, which stands for Mail Exchanger record, is another crucial DNS record type. It aims to direct the email server in charge of receiving emails for a particular domain name. It contains the domain name that points to the incoming mail server’s hostname. In addition, it should be noted that it must point to a hostname rather than an IP address.

In case of failure, you can build up a backup by creating numerous MX records with different priorities. It is critical for you to be able to receive emails correctly.

TXT record

We can’t skip the TXT (Abridged from text) DNS record. It is very versatile. In a text format, it provides information to sources outside of the domain. A type of TXT record is the SPF record. Mail servers are using it to decide if the mail source is trustworthy and comes from the correct domain. 

The TXT records could be used for different verification and authentication methods. Increasing the level of trust in your domain and emails is vital for your internet reputation.

Conclusion

Now, you can safely say that you are familiar with the fundamental DNS record types. They are critical for your Domain Name System to run smoothly and without a hitch. If you configure them well, you will have no problems.

CDN – What is it and how does it work?CDN – What is it and how does it work?

CDN – definition

The term CDN refers to a “content delivery network.” It’s a network of servers that spans a large geographic area and has extremely particular server locations. The purpose is to cover the territory from which possible tourists may originate thoroughly. To have servers that cache data (code, photos, movies, and so on) as close to visitors as possible. Visitors will receive better and faster service as a result of this. The CDN’s other benefit is load balancing, which reduces the workload on the central server.

How does it work?

CDN works in a simple way. It saves a cached version of the demand information in multiple points of presence (PoPs). Every PoP also has a caching server in charge of providing content to users in its immediate area. For example, users in France will access your site through a local France PoP if you own an e-shop in the United Kingdom. Their queries and your site’s responses will not have to go across continents.

Every CDN has servers located at Internet exchange points (IXPs). For its part, Internet service providers connect to these key locations, for example, to provide access to the traffic generated on their various networks. Connection to these IXPs gives CDNs significantly increased speed and connectivity to a wide range of destinations. This saves costs and transit times in high-speed data delivery for content delivery network providers.

Who is the CDN for?

It is for everyone! Yes, almost everyone can implement CDN. Take a media corporation, for example. If you already have one, a content delivery network could be the key to expanding your distribution. It might also be helpful for e-commerce sites, especially if they operate in a number of markets, such as the United States. Alternatively, if different countries, such as the European Union, are your target market, it may be a good match. Blog sites, news sites, online services, and many other types of websites are not exempt. It is entirely dependent on your requirements.

Benefits

  • A CDN shortens the time it takes for a website to load and minimizes latency to the absolute minimum. This is because you have a cached version of the requested content on a server near to where the origin of the request. This makes the transmission of the necessary materials to load it much faster (images, videos, javascript files, HTML pages, etc.).
  • CDN increases the availability and redundancy of your data. Each of the servers in a content delivery network can save a cached copy of your information. Of course, things happen, and hardware can fail, but this redundancy can ensure that your website’s information is always available.
  • Content delivery networks can help to improve security. They can efficiently distribute traffic since they are huge networks. DDoS protection, security certificates, and other features are also available from reputable vendors.

Conclusion

One of the most important criteria in determining the efficiency of a website is its speed. With CDN, you may get better performance and a better user experience. Use it, and you’ll see the benefits right away in your wallet!

Round-Robin DNS – Everything you need to knowRound-Robin DNS – Everything you need to know

What is Round-Robin DNS?

Round-Robin DNS is a mechanism for administrating the incoming traffic. 

This technique is based on the time of arrival of the user request and the actual number of servers that you have. Simply you create several A or AAAA records with different IP addresses (IPv4 and IPv6) that correspond to the multiple servers. Each one of them stores a duplicate of the information for your website. So, whenever a user requests your domain name, the authoritative name server, storing the A or AAAA records, is going to provide the next in rotation turn A or AAAA records from those you created. The users are going to be automatically directed when they are desire to reach your website. The exact moment when they reach your DNS name server is important for the precise order.

Let’s break down the process a little bit more. 

In a case you have 5 users and 3 servers:

User 1 connects to server 1.

User 2 connects to server 2.

User 3 connects to server 3.

At the moment when user 4 requests to visit your website, the circle will start again. 

User 4 will connect to server 1

User 5 will connect to server 2 and so on.

Why should you use it?

Round-Robin DNS handles the traffic to your website and reduces it. As an outcome, the user experience of your customers is going to be drastically improved. In addition, the network is going to be less saturated, and its performance is going to be better.

This load balancing mechanism allows modifications. That means in case your servers are not equal and one of them is better than the rest, you can set the mechanism in the best productive way. The weaker servers are going to receive less traffic.

Round‑Robin DNS algorithm types

  • Weighted Round-Robin – You can choose specific criteria and assign the particular weight to every server. Typically, administrators use the server’s traffic‑handling capability. The higher the weight, the bigger the number of user requests the server is going to receive. 
  • Dynamic Round-Robin – A weight is assigned dynamically to each server. It observes real‑time data about the servers’ load and unused potential.

Benefits of Round-Robin DNS

  • It is very simple and easy to install and set up the Round-Robin DNS.
  • Balancing the traffic improves the security and could prevent a DDoS attack in progress.
  • Round-Robin DNS is a pretty cost-effective option.
  • It satisfies the users’ expectations and handles high volumes of traffic efficiently.
  • You can easily optimize the functionality of your network to make it healthy, fast, and safe.

Anycast DNS – 3 Reasons why you should choose itAnycast DNS – 3 Reasons why you should choose it

Anycast DNS is a really useful service that can help your business. It makes surfing the web much faster and more efficient. So, let’s explore that a little more.

Different Routing methods

To send or receive data, you have a few alternatives. However, each of them has its own set of requirements implemented in various settings.

  • Anycast is comparable to Unicast in many ways. There is one significant difference, however: there are several hosts. As a result, the inquiry will be forwarded to the closest host. 
  • Unicast is a one-to-one communication system. This is the most fundamental technique in which all traffic is sent to a single site.
  • Broadcast is a term that most people are familiar with from television and radio. The data is carried from one point to all in this system.
  • Multicast is one-to-many as well, though not to everyone. The traffic is only of interest to a small group. So, type is helpful if there are no local nameservers.

You’ve already briefly met Аnycast DNS. But let’s explain it in more detail.

Anycast DNS – detailed explanation

Most DNS providers provide anycast DNS service as an optional feature. It is a helpful tool for traffic routing that allows websites to provide content rapidly. This is made feasible by the multiple nameservers that store a specific identical IP address.

Each of these servers is located in a different geographical area in order to be closer to potential users. As a result, DNS queries are answered much faster, and the user experience is enhanced. In addition, the closest and available server will respond to the user’s request. As a result, the Anycast DNS service reduces latency to virtually zero, and your clients will not have to wait long to access and explore your website.

Furthermore, even if the nearest server is unable to respond, such as when it is under maintenance, your website will remain accessible. DNS resolution is completed quickly due to selecting the fastest path.

Benefits from using it

As you can see, Anycast is a convenient service. So here are the three reasons why you should choose it if you are still considering implementing it for your business. 

  1. The first one is that it is simple to configure. It’s easy to set up because you need to configure it on one server. Additionally, similar changes can be made across the entire network.
  2. The second reason why you should choose it is the improved uptime. A server can fail, but the likelihood of a group of servers failing at the exact moment is extremely unlikely. As a result, your website will have improved uptime, and your users will be able to access it at any time. In addition, the response time is faster. When your servers respond quickly, the waiting time is significantly reduced. Few potential customers will abandon your website.
  3. And the last one is better security. DoS and DDoS attacks might use many ways, but the common thread is that they use large amounts of traffic as a weapon against flood victims. Typically, the technology used to prevent and guard against such attacks is complex and costly. Given that Anycast DNS is excellent for load-balancing, the anomalous traffic might be distributed over the network without causing an issue. Your security will be much stronger if you use this excellent strategy. Don’t undervalue the security of your website.

Conclusion

Anycast DNS, in general, is a method of keeping traffic local. You route it to the nearest instance, ensuring that your clients receive quick and dependable service. Furthermore, it is simple to set up and will boost your networking. So it is definitely worth a shot!

DNS resolution – Essential behind-the-scenes processDNS resolution – Essential behind-the-scenes process

DNS resolution – Definition

The DNS resolution is a fundamental process that resolves a domain name to its IP address (IPv4 or IPv6). Without it, the entire Internet would work in a completely different way. However, it occurs behind the scenes because regular users don’t even notice that it is happening. People are used to typing a simple domain name, and the desired website is loaded in their browser. However, the user’s DNS query is actually traveling through several separate servers until it receives a full answer. 

DNS resolution process explained

Regular users are used to connecting with their favorite websites in the blink of an eye. However, the entire DNS resolution process actually takes a long path. So, let’s’ explain a little bit more about the steps of this process, which begins with the user’s desire to visit a precise website for the very first time. 

  1. The user makes a DNS query by writing the domain name into its browser’s address bar. That way, the DNS lookup for the needed IP address begins.
  2. The recursive DNS server obtains the DNS query and checks in its own DNS cache memory. The required IP address could still be available there. In case it is not found there, the recursive DNS server proceeds to the following steps. 
  3. Тhe recursive DNS server proceeds and queries the Root server, which is on the top of the DNS hierarchy. The Root is able to provide information only for the location of the TLD (Top-Level Domain) server, such as .info, .net, .com, and so on.
  4. The DNS query is redirected to the TLD (Top-Level Domain) server responsible for the precise domain name. This server holds information about where is the needed name server for the domain.
  5. The recursive DNS server (DNS resolver) proceeds and requests information from the authoritative DNS server of the domain. This server carries the needed data (IP address) of the domain name, and it is the one capable of delivering an authoritative answer to the DNS recursive server.
  6. The recursive DNS server receives the information and contacts it back to the browser of the user. Additionally, it is going to store the IP address in its DNS cache memory to provide a quicker answer in the future.
  7. The user receives the IP address (IPv4 or IPv6), connects with the desired website, and caches it in the DNS cache.

So now you understand that the DNS resolution is an extensive process with several steps. Yet, at the same time, the user sees it as a few seconds.

Why is it important?

The DNS resolution process is crucial for humans. If it does not exist it would be a challenge for regular users to use the Internet and connect with their favorite websites. Back in the days when DNS (Domain Name System) did not exist, all IP addresses were saved in a single Host file. However, that was not practical anymore due to the fact that the devices wanting to connect to the Internet got a lot more.

Thanks to the development of DNS and the process of DNS resolution, we are easily accessing each website that we want by simply typing the domain name. We are not required to memorize complicated IP addresses.

GeoDNS – The Best Solution For Global OrganizationsGeoDNS – The Best Solution For Global Organizations

GeoDNS – What is it?

You can find GeoDNS, also called global traffic director or only traffic director. Don’t get confused. They mean exactly the same thing! It represents a very effective technique for optimizing the incoming traffic of a domain via geographical-based routing.

If we compare the traditional DNS service and GeoDNS, we should point out the main difference. The traditional DNS servers store an identical IP address for a particular domain. On the other hand, GeoDNS includes storing multiple IP addresses based on the location. In addition, it is an alternative for cloud-based load balancing. As a result, the overall performance of your network is going to be improved.

It is a great choice for organizations with a global presence and for companies that deliver content worldwide (CDN). Based on the fact that the name servers are placed in numerous strategic locations worldwide, it completely satisfies the needs of these large organizations.

How does it work?

The extensive networks with a great number of servers cover all of the needed regions, continents, and the entire planet. Thanks to them, GeoDNS is achievable.

Users are capable of finding your domain name thanks to a process called DNS resolution. This process is triggered every time a user wants and types a domain name into their browser’s address bar. The DNS query travels through several DNS servers to find an answer. In case GeoDNS is implemented, the DNS servers are going to look at the IP address of the user. That way, they understand from what location and region the request is initiated. Then, they examine and determine in their database which is the suitable server to answer the DNS query. There is a different IP address for the same domain name in each server. That is the key to excellent speed.

Standard DNS servers, meaning without GeoDNS, operate with one identical IP address for a domain (Anycast DNS, for instance). GeoDNS determines the route. That way, the requests are directed to the geographically nearest server.

Why should you use GeoDNS?

  • Better traffic distribution – GeoDNS allows you to manage the traffic efficiently, and it is an excellent solution for load balancing (like Round-Robin). In addition, it helps you to avoid traffic overload and DNS downtime automatically via this approach. On the other hand, it also serves perfectly for building a complete CDN.
  • Easy set up – GeoDNS is actually very simple to use. You just have to set it up, and then everything is going to operate automatically. 
  • Eliminates DNS downtime – When you have an entire network of DNS servers, you are instantly improving the uptime. Even in worst-case scenarios, and one server is down, the DNS requests are going to be answered from another server in your group.
  • Set geo-restrictions. You can restrict particular users based on their IP address and location. That is very useful in cases when you handle objects with intellectual properties, for instance, videos, music, pictures, and so on.

Who can benefit from GeoDNS?

GeoDNS could be a great solution for various types of businesses. However, the majority of large companies with a global presence are going to notice the most benefits of implementing this type of service. Also, content platforms that deliver their services to their global audience and e-commerce websites that demand high uptime.