Tag: DNS

DNS record types – Definitions & PurposesDNS record types – Definitions & Purposes

The whole complicated Domain Name System has different DNS record types. Without them, this system will not be able to function. Why they are so important and what are their primary purposes we are going to see today in this article. 

DNS record – definition

Before exploring different DNS record types, we will see what the term DNS record means. They are text instructions situated in the zone file. Their primary purpose is to allow domain names to be resolved to IP addresses. They are so light and easy for modifications if they are necessary. We use different record types because computers are not like us humans and can’t understand the texts. So that’s why we translate this information in their language via DNS records. In other words, they translate the written information into numbers that machines can understand.

What are the most popular DNS record types?

Referring to the above, there are lots of DNS record types. Each one performs a specific job that is crucial for the proper operation of your Domain Name System. We’ll look at five of the most important ones, which are: 

A record

The A record is perhaps the most common and popular DNS record type. Its major goal is to link a domain name to the IP address that corresponds to it (IPv4 address). A user requests the A record whenever they wish to access and explore a specific website (domain name). It must be pointed to the correct IP address.

The A record is an essential aspect of the DNS setup. The domain name would be unable to be resolved if it was not found in the DNS zone.

SOA record

The next vital DNS record is SOA, representing the start of authority. It’s where the zone’s administrative data is kept. It is the initial DNS record in a DNS zone file, and it also establishes the zone’s general attributes. It also contains information on zone transfers, such as the refresh rate, retry rate, and administrator’s email address.

The SOA record acts as a control record with a serial number that indicates whether a new update is available. When the Secondary DNS servers notice a change in the number, they will update and obtain the most recent information.

PTR record

Another essential DNS record is the PTR record. If you want to send emails to anyone without difficulty, you’ll need it. The PTR record, also known as a pointer record, serves the opposite purpose as the A record. It connects a domain name to an IP address. When you send an email, your recipient will want to double-check that it was sent from your domain name. As a result, here the PTR record comes. If you make a mistake configuring the A record and the PTR record, your emails will most likely end up in your recipients’ spam folders.

MX record

The MX record, which stands for Mail Exchanger record, is another crucial DNS record type. It aims to direct the email server in charge of receiving emails for a particular domain name. It contains the domain name that points to the incoming mail server’s hostname. In addition, it should be noted that it must point to a hostname rather than an IP address.

In case of failure, you can build up a backup by creating numerous MX records with different priorities. It is critical for you to be able to receive emails correctly.

TXT record

We can’t skip the TXT (Abridged from text) DNS record. It is very versatile. In a text format, it provides information to sources outside of the domain. A type of TXT record is the SPF record. Mail servers are using it to decide if the mail source is trustworthy and comes from the correct domain. 

The TXT records could be used for different verification and authentication methods. Increasing the level of trust in your domain and emails is vital for your internet reputation.

Conclusion

Now, you can safely say that you are familiar with the fundamental DNS record types. They are critical for your Domain Name System to run smoothly and without a hitch. If you configure them well, you will have no problems.

DNS resolution – Essential behind-the-scenes processDNS resolution – Essential behind-the-scenes process

DNS resolution – Definition

The DNS resolution is a fundamental process that resolves a domain name to its IP address (IPv4 or IPv6). Without it, the entire Internet would work in a completely different way. However, it occurs behind the scenes because regular users don’t even notice that it is happening. People are used to typing a simple domain name, and the desired website is loaded in their browser. However, the user’s DNS query is actually traveling through several separate servers until it receives a full answer. 

DNS resolution process explained

Regular users are used to connecting with their favorite websites in the blink of an eye. However, the entire DNS resolution process actually takes a long path. So, let’s’ explain a little bit more about the steps of this process, which begins with the user’s desire to visit a precise website for the very first time. 

  1. The user makes a DNS query by writing the domain name into its browser’s address bar. That way, the DNS lookup for the needed IP address begins.
  2. The recursive DNS server obtains the DNS query and checks in its own DNS cache memory. The required IP address could still be available there. In case it is not found there, the recursive DNS server proceeds to the following steps. 
  3. Тhe recursive DNS server proceeds and queries the Root server, which is on the top of the DNS hierarchy. The Root is able to provide information only for the location of the TLD (Top-Level Domain) server, such as .info, .net, .com, and so on.
  4. The DNS query is redirected to the TLD (Top-Level Domain) server responsible for the precise domain name. This server holds information about where is the needed name server for the domain.
  5. The recursive DNS server (DNS resolver) proceeds and requests information from the authoritative DNS server of the domain. This server carries the needed data (IP address) of the domain name, and it is the one capable of delivering an authoritative answer to the DNS recursive server.
  6. The recursive DNS server receives the information and contacts it back to the browser of the user. Additionally, it is going to store the IP address in its DNS cache memory to provide a quicker answer in the future.
  7. The user receives the IP address (IPv4 or IPv6), connects with the desired website, and caches it in the DNS cache.

So now you understand that the DNS resolution is an extensive process with several steps. Yet, at the same time, the user sees it as a few seconds.

Why is it important?

The DNS resolution process is crucial for humans. If it does not exist it would be a challenge for regular users to use the Internet and connect with their favorite websites. Back in the days when DNS (Domain Name System) did not exist, all IP addresses were saved in a single Host file. However, that was not practical anymore due to the fact that the devices wanting to connect to the Internet got a lot more.

Thanks to the development of DNS and the process of DNS resolution, we are easily accessing each website that we want by simply typing the domain name. We are not required to memorize complicated IP addresses.

GeoDNS – The Best Solution For Global OrganizationsGeoDNS – The Best Solution For Global Organizations

GeoDNS – What is it?

You can find GeoDNS, also called global traffic director or only traffic director. Don’t get confused. They mean exactly the same thing! It represents a very effective technique for optimizing the incoming traffic of a domain via geographical-based routing.

If we compare the traditional DNS service and GeoDNS, we should point out the main difference. The traditional DNS servers store an identical IP address for a particular domain. On the other hand, GeoDNS includes storing multiple IP addresses based on the location. In addition, it is an alternative for cloud-based load balancing. As a result, the overall performance of your network is going to be improved.

It is a great choice for organizations with a global presence and for companies that deliver content worldwide (CDN). Based on the fact that the name servers are placed in numerous strategic locations worldwide, it completely satisfies the needs of these large organizations.

How does it work?

The extensive networks with a great number of servers cover all of the needed regions, continents, and the entire planet. Thanks to them, GeoDNS is achievable.

Users are capable of finding your domain name thanks to a process called DNS resolution. This process is triggered every time a user wants and types a domain name into their browser’s address bar. The DNS query travels through several DNS servers to find an answer. In case GeoDNS is implemented, the DNS servers are going to look at the IP address of the user. That way, they understand from what location and region the request is initiated. Then, they examine and determine in their database which is the suitable server to answer the DNS query. There is a different IP address for the same domain name in each server. That is the key to excellent speed.

Standard DNS servers, meaning without GeoDNS, operate with one identical IP address for a domain (Anycast DNS, for instance). GeoDNS determines the route. That way, the requests are directed to the geographically nearest server.

Why should you use GeoDNS?

  • Better traffic distribution – GeoDNS allows you to manage the traffic efficiently, and it is an excellent solution for load balancing (like Round-Robin). In addition, it helps you to avoid traffic overload and DNS downtime automatically via this approach. On the other hand, it also serves perfectly for building a complete CDN.
  • Easy set up – GeoDNS is actually very simple to use. You just have to set it up, and then everything is going to operate automatically. 
  • Eliminates DNS downtime – When you have an entire network of DNS servers, you are instantly improving the uptime. Even in worst-case scenarios, and one server is down, the DNS requests are going to be answered from another server in your group.
  • Set geo-restrictions. You can restrict particular users based on their IP address and location. That is very useful in cases when you handle objects with intellectual properties, for instance, videos, music, pictures, and so on.

Who can benefit from GeoDNS?

GeoDNS could be a great solution for various types of businesses. However, the majority of large companies with a global presence are going to notice the most benefits of implementing this type of service. Also, content platforms that deliver their services to their global audience and e-commerce websites that demand high uptime.